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RI_532

56 record(s)
 
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    The Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System FireWork (RAQDPS-FW) carries out physics and chemistry calculations, including emissions from active wildfires, to arrive at deterministic predictions of chemical species concentration of interest to air quality, such as fine particulate matter PM2.5 (2.5 micrometers in diameter or less). Geographical coverage is Canada and the United States. Data is available at a horizontal resolution of 10 km. While the system encompasses more than 80 vertical levels, data is available only for the surface level. The products are presented as historical, annual or monthly, averages which highlight long-term trends in cumulative effects on the environment.

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    The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a scale designed to help quantify the quality of the air in a certain region on a scale from 1 to 10. When the amount of air pollution is very high, the number is reported as 10+. It also includes a category that describes the health risk associated with the index reading (e.g. Low, Moderate, High, or Very High Health Risk). The AQHI is calculated based on the relative risks of a combination of common air pollutants that are known to harm human health, including ground-level ozone, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. The AQHI formulation captures only the short term or acute health risk (exposure of hour or days at a maximum). The formulation of the AQHI may change over time to reflect new understanding associated with air pollution health effects. The AQHI is calculated from data observed in real time, without being verified (quality control).

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    The Global Ensemble Wave Prediction System (GEWPS) uses the third generation spectral wave model WaveWatch III® (WW3) to arrive at probabilistic predictions of wave elements from the current day out to 16 days into the future. The probabilistic predictions are based on 20 ensemble members and a control member that are forced by the 10 meters winds from the Global Ensemble Prediction System (GEPS). The GEPS forecast is a coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean model, its sea ice forecast is used by the GEWPS to dampen or suppress wave growth in areas covered respectively with 25% to 75% and more than 75% ice. WW3 (WAVEWATCH III® Development Group, WW3DG 2019) is a third generation spectral wave prediction model that solves the evolution of the energy balance equation for the 2-D wave energy spectrum without any prior assumptions on the shape of the spectrum. The WW3 model has been implemented by a growing number of national operational forecasting centres over the last several years.

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    These products are derived from RGB (red/green/blue) images, a satellite processing technique that uses a combination of satellite sensor bands (also called channels) and applies a red/green/blue (RGB) filter to each of them. The result is a false-color image, i.e. an image that does not correspond to what the human eye would see, but offers high contrast between different cloud types and surface features. The on-board sensor of a weather satellite obtains two basic types of information: visible light data (reflected light) reflecting off clouds and different surface types, also known as "reflectance", and infrared data (emitted radiation) which are long-wave radiations emitted by clouds and surface features. RGBs are specially designed to combine this type of satellite data, resulting in an information-rich final product. Four types of products are currently generated from the GOES-West and GOES-East satellites: "NightIR" and "NightMicrophysics", at 2km resolution, are generated 24 hours a day with infrared channels, so are visible both night and day, and "NaturalColour" and "DayCloudConvection", at 1km resolution, which combine visible light channels with infrared channels; their higher resolution makes the latter two products more popular, but they are not available during most of the night (between 02UTC and 07UTC for GOES-Est, and between 06UTC and 11UTC for GOES-Ouest) given the absence of reflected sunlight. Other RGB products should be added gradually in the future to meet different needs.

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    This site provides public access to real-time hydrometric data collected at over 1800 locations and access to historical data collected at over 7600 stations (active and discontinued) in Canada. Hydrometric data are collected and compiled by Water Survey of Canada’s eight regional offices and housed in two centrally-managed databases: HYDEX and HYDAT.

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    The Regional Ice-Ocean Prediction System (RIOPS) is based on the NEMO-CICE ice-ocean model and produces regional sea ice and ocean analyses and 84 hours forecasts daily based at [00, 06, 12, 18] UTC on a subset of the 1/12° resolution global tri-polar grid (ORCA12). RIOPS assimilates data (gridded CCMEP analysis SST product, SLA from satellite altimetry, in situ observations) using a multivariate reduced order Kalman filter and includes a 3DVar ice concentration analysis (assimilating satellite remote sensing and Canadian Ice Service ice charts). Atmospheric fluxes for 84 hours forecasts are calculated using fields from a blending of the Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS) and the Global Deterministic Prediction System (GDPS).

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    Statistical post-processing of weather and environmental forecasts issued by numerical models, including the Global Deterministic Prediction System (GDPS), reduces systematic bias and error variance of raw numerical forecasts. This is achieved by establishing an optimal relationship between observations recorded at stations and co-located numerical model outputs. The Updatable Model Output Statistics (UMOS) system at Environment Canada carries out this task. The statistical relationships are built using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) method and a multiple linear regression (MLR) technic. The weather and environmental variable being statistically post-processed by UMOS consists of air temperature at approximately 1.5 meters above ground. The absence of a statistically post-processed forecast can be caused by a missing statistical model due to insufficient observation data quality or quantity. Geographical coverage includes weather stations across Canada. Statistically post-processed forecasts are available at the same frequency of emission as the numerical model producing the raw forecasts and at 3-hourly lead times up to 144 hours (6 days) for the GDPS.

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    Environment Canada issues weather alerts about weather related hazards in order to notify those in affected areas so that they can take steps to protect themselves and their property from harm. Alerts are classified depending on the severity and timing of the subject event and include: warnings, watches, advisories and statements. Warnings are usually issued six to 24 hours in advance, although some severe weather (such as thunderstorms and tornadoes) can occur rapidly, with less than a half hours' notice.

  • Categories  

    The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a scale designed to help quantify the quality of the air in a certain region on a scale from 1 to 10. When the amount of air pollution is very high, the number is reported as 10+. It also includes a category that describes the health risk associated with the index reading (e.g. Low, Moderate, High, or Very High Health Risk). The AQHI is calculated based on the relative risks of a combination of common air pollutants that are known to harm human health, including ground-level ozone, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. The AQHI formulation captures only the short term or acute health risk (exposure of hour or days at a maximum). The formulation of the AQHI may change over time to reflect new understanding associated with air pollution health effects. The AQHI is calculated from data observed in real time, without being verified (quality control).

  • Categories  

    Hotspots are locations where wildfires are actively burning, identified from infrared satellite imagery. Hotspot locations are provided by NASA and NOAA, and further processed by Natural Resources Canada's Canadian Wildland Fire Information System. This layer contains the hotspots that are selected to be used as input for the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System FireWork (RAQDPS-FW) to enable forecasting air quality while taking into account wildfire emissions. Geographical coverage is Canada and the United States. The products are presented as historical annual compilations which highlight long-term trends in cumulative effects on the environment.