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The Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) program provides data and information to track Canada's performance on key environmental sustainability issues. Canada's conserved areas indicators report the amount and proportion of Canada's terrestrial (land and freshwater) and marine area that is recognized as conserved. Well-managed conserved areas are one way to protect wild species and their habitats for present and future generations. Habitat conservation is a measure of human response to the loss of biodiversity and natural habitat. As the area conserved in Canada increases, more lands and waters are withdrawn from direct human development stresses, thereby contributing to biodiversity conservation and improving the health of ecosystems. In turn, healthy ecosystems provide benefits such as clean water, mitigation of climate change, pollination and improved human health. Information is provided to Canadians in a number of formats including: static and interactive maps, charts and graphs, HTML and CSV data tables and downloadable reports. See the supplementary documentation for the data sources and details on how the data were collected and how the indicator was calculated. Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators: https://www.canada.ca/environmental-indicators
Black carbon is a short-lived, small aerosol (or airborne) particle linked to both climate warming and adverse health effects. It is emitted from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels (i.e., fossil fuels, biofuels, wood) in the form of very fine particulate matter. Black carbon is not emitted on its own, but as a component of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5). As a member of the Arctic Council, Canada has committed to producing an annual inventory of black carbon emissions. This data will serve to inform Canadians about black carbon emissions and provide valuable information for the development of air quality management strategies. The data used to compile the report originate from sections of the Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (APEI) specifically fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from combustion-related sources.
Stream sampling was conducted in the Whitemans Creek watershed in February 2012 to assess water quality during winter baseflow conditions. A total of 30 stream sites were sampled where streams in the watershed intersected roadways. In addition to conventional water quality parameters (e.g., major anions, major cations, ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon), stable isotopes of nitrate and sulfate were analyzed to provide insights into the sources of these compounds in the streams. Select artificial sweeteners (acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose) and anionic herbicides (glyphosate, AMPA, 2,4-D, glufosinate, fosamine, MCPA, picloram) were also measured as novel tracers of certain anthropogenic activities that potentially impact water quality. These data, as well as information on the sampling and analytical methods used, and interpretation of the data, are presented in the report, Water quality snapshot of Whitemans Creek during winter baseflow conditions (https://open-science.canada.ca/items/a9626ada-8a8c-4647-9e02-7efc19c9779a).
The Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) program provides data and information to track Canada's performance on key environmental sustainability issues. The Releases of harmful substances to water indicator tracks facility-based releases to water of 3 substances that are defined as toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999: mercury, lead and cadmium and their compounds. For each substance, data are provided at the national, regional (provincial and territorial) and facility level and by source. Mercury and its compounds, lead and inorganic cadmium compounds are on the Toxic substances list under Schedule 1 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. This means that these substances are "entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that (a) have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity; (b) constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends; or (c) constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health." The indicators inform Canadians about releases to water of these 3 substances from facilities in Canada. The Releases of harmful substances to water indicators also help the government to identify priorities and develop or revise strategies to inform further risk management and to track progress on policies put in place to reduce or control these 3 substances and water pollution in general. Information is provided to Canadians in a number of formats including: static and interactive maps, charts and graphs, HTML and CSV data tables and downloadable reports. See the supplementary documentation for the data sources and details on how the data were collected and how the indicator was calculated. Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators: https://www.canada.ca/environmental-indicators
Our current understanding of the factors that influence where birds nest is incomplete, yet such information is important for accurate demographic assessments. To address questions related to spatial distributions of shorebird nests and to evaluate factors that may affect nest distribution in these species, during 2017 and 2019, we studied a small population of semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) breeding in the Central Canadian Arctic, near the Karrak Lake Research Station, in Nunavut. The spatial distribution of semipalmated sandpiper nests at this site suggested loose aggregation, with median nearest neighbour distances of 73.8 m and 92.0 m in 2017 and 2019, respectively. Evidence for an influence of nesting distribution on daily survival rate of nests, however, was mixed. Neither nearest neighbour distance nor local nest density had a significant effect on daily nest survival in 2017, but in 2019, the best approximating model included an effect of local nest density, which indicated that nests in areas of high density had reduced survival rates. Contrary to other studies assessing settlement and nest site selection in semipalmated sandpipers, the spatial distribution of nests in this population demonstrates a role for social attraction in an otherwise territorial species and suggests that aggregated nesting can impose a cost on nest survival under certain conditions.
The Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) program provides data and information to track Canada's performance on key environmental sustainability issues. The Status of key fish stocks indicator reports the status of key fish stocks. Federal scientists use a variety of scientific methods to assess fish stock levels and assign them a stock status zone (Healthy, Cautious or Critical) by comparing the size of the stocks to reference points. If there is insufficient information to determine the stock status zone, the status is uncertain. Stock status is an important element of the precautionary approach. Information is provided to Canadians in a number of formats including: static and interactive maps, charts and graphs, HTML and CSV data tables and downloadable reports. See the supplementary documentation for the data sources and details on how the data were collected and how the indicator was calculated. Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators: https://www.canada.ca/environmental-indicators
The Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) provides lightning monitoring across most of Canada. The data distributed here represents a spatio-temporal aggregation of the observations of this network available with an accuracy of a few hundred meters. More precisely, every 10 minutes, the reported observations are processed in the following way: The location of observed lightning (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) in the last 10 minutes is extracted. Using a regular horizontal grid of about 2.5km by 2.5km, the number of observed lightning flashes within each grid cell is calculated. These grid data are normalized by the exact area of each cell (in km2) and by the accumulation period (10min) to obtain an observed flash density expressed in km-2 and min-1. A mask is applied to remove data located more than 250km from Canadian land or sea borders.
The Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) program provides data and information to track Canada's performance on key environmental sustainability issues. The Sea ice in Canada indicators provide information on the area of sea in Canada covered by ice during the summer season. Sea ice area represents the portion of marine area covered by ice. The area is evaluated using the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive and is expressed in thousands or millions of square kilometres. The Sea ice in Canada indicators are provided for the Northern Canadian Waters, by sub-region and for the Northwest Passage. The indicators also present trends in total sea ice area and multi-year sea ice area. Multi-year sea ice is defined as sea ice that has survived at least one summer's melt. Sea ice is an indicator of how the climate is changing. It is a critical component of our planet because it influences the Arctic and global climate, ecosystems, and people who live in the polar regions. Sea ice influences the climate through the sea ice–albedo feedback effect (or reflectivity of the Earth's surface). Changes in sea ice can also affect ocean currents and the exchange of heat and water vapour from the ocean to the atmosphere. Sea ice affects marine transportation, commercial fishing, offshore resource development, the hunting and fishing patterns of Indigenous peoples, and tourism and recreation. Understanding how Canada's climate is changing is important for developing adaptive responses. The Sea ice in Canada indicators provide a way to communicate to Canadians how the coverage of Canada's Arctic sea ice has changed. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the World Meteorological Organization use sea ice, among several other variables, to assess long-term changes in climate. Sea ice is considered by the World Meteorological Organization's Global Climate Observing System to be an Essential Climate Variable. Information is provided to Canadians in a number of formats including: static and interactive maps, charts and graphs, HTML and CSV data tables and downloadable reports. See the supplementary documentation for the data sources and details on how the data were collected and how the indicator was calculated. Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators: https://www.canada.ca/environmental-indicators
Numerous actions have been undertaken by farmers to attenuate the impact of agricultural activities on aquatic ecosystems. The identification of biomarkers that respond quickly to water quality improvement could facilitate the assessment of adopted alternative practices and help maintain mobilization among stakeholders. Here, we evaluated the potential of the Comet assay, a biomarker of genotoxic effects, using a freshwater mussel, Elliptio complanata, as a model animal. The frequency of DNA damage was assessed in hemocytes of mussels collected from a pristine habitat (MSH) and caged for 8 weeks in the Pot au Beurre River (PAB), a tributary of Lake St-Pierre (QC, Canada) impacted by agricultural activities. Pesticides and water quality parameters were also measured in surface water on a weekly basis during the caging period. Our findings suggest that the Comet assay is a sensitive tool for the early detection of changes in water toxicity following the adoption of agricultural beneficial practices. All data are a part subject of a publication containing method details, full QA/QC, interpretation and conclusions. Citation: Gendron, A.D., Lacaze, É., Taranu, Z.E., Gouge, R., Larbi-Youcef, Y., Houde, M., André, C., Gagné, F., Triffault-Bouchet, G. and Giroux, I. (2023), The Comet Assay, a Sensitive Biomarker of Water Quality Improvement Following Adoption of Beneficial Agricultural Practices?. Environ Toxicol Chem. doi.org/10.1002/etc.5711