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    Herring gulls are piscivorous and occupy a high trophic level, thus they can accumulate contaminant concentrations attoxic effect levels. Data provided here is part of a larger Great Lakes-wide study that has taken place over four decades. Nest counts and contaminants data for Fighting Island (Detroit River) and Middle Island (Lake Erie) are available. Species include: herring gulls, ring-billed gulls, common tern, black-crowned night-herons. Surveys are on-going, but the gulls have not returned to the Detroit River system since the year 2007.

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    Environment Canada's EcoAction Community Funding Program has provided financial support to community-based, non-profit organizations for projects that have measurable, positive impacts on the environment. The Program encourages action focused projects that will protect, rehabilitate or enhance the natural environment, and build the capacity of communities to sustain these activities into the future. In keeping with Environment Canada's national environmental priorities, the Program supports projects that address the following four themes: Clean air: to reduce emissions that contribute to air pollutants Clean water: to divert and reduce substances that negatively affect water quality or to focus on water conservation and efficiency Climate change: to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change or to deal with the impacts of climate change Nature: to reduce biodiversity loss, protect wildlife and plants, and protect and improve the habitat where they live The following is a map describing the EcoAction projects at their geographical locations in Google earth. To download Google earth follow this link, http://www.google.com/earth/download/ge/agree.html

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    The Government of Canada is committed to the long-term sustainability of Canada's lakes and waterways to ensure that there is clean water for all Canadians, both for this, and future, generations. To this end, on August 2nd, 2012, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced the launch of Phase II of the Lake Winnipeg Basin Initiative (LWBI) with a five-year (2012-2017), $18 million investment through the Action Plan for Clean Water that will focus on improving water quality for people living in the region, as well as for fish and wildlife in and surrounding Lake Winnipeg. The Lake Winnipeg Basin Initiative aims to restore the ecological health of Lake Winnipeg, reduce pollution from sources such as agriculture, industry and wastewater, and improve water quality for fisheries and recreation. The Lake Winnipeg ecosystem supports an annual freshwater fishery of $50 million and a $110 million recreation and tourism industry. In addition, the Government of Canada is also providing support for community based projects through the Lake Winnipeg Basin Stewardship Fund - part of the Lake Winnipeg Basin Initiative and administered through Environment Canada's Lake Winnipeg Basin Office. The fund is cleaning up Lake Winnipeg by providing support to action-oriented water stewardship projects led by communities, conservation authorities, non-profit organizations and academic institutions. The following is a map describing the Lake Winnipeg Basin Stewardship Fund's funded projects at their geographical locations in Google earth. To download Google earth copy this link, http://www.google.com/earth/download/ge/agree.html

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    The Environmental Damages Fund (EDF), created by the Government of Canada in 1995, follows the Polluter Pays Principle to ensure that those who cause damage to the environment take responsibility for their actions. Prosecutors and judges can recommend that financial penalties (fines, awards and/or settlements) paid by environmental offenders are directed to the EDF, thereby helping to improve Canada’s natural environment. As the administrator of the EDF for the Government of Canada, Environment Canada assesses the funds received to ensure they respect conditions specified by the court, and relate as closely as possible to the nature of the environmental damage that resulted in funds being directed to EDF. Environment Canada’s Funding Program conducts Calls for Proposals to support community-based, non-profit organizations, and other eligible organizations for projects that have measureable and positive impact on the environment. The data enclosed is of the EDF Funded Projects since 2009. The map shows the projects in their relevant geographical locations in Google earth.

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    An Area of Concern (AOC) is a location where environmental quality is degraded compared to other areas in the Great Lake Basin resulting in the impairment of beneficial uses. A total of 43 AOCs were identified as a result of Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA).The Canada-United States GLWQA identifies 14 beneficial uses that must be restored in order to remove the designation as an Area of Concern. A beneficial use is defined as the ability of living organisms (including humans) to use the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem without adverse consequences. A Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) is a condition that interferes with the enjoyment of a water use. Each BUI has a set of locally-defined delisting criteria that are specific, measurable, achievable, and scientifically-defensible. The Remedial Action Plan (RAP) is administered locally in accordance with the Canada-U.S. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) and the Canada-Ontario Agreement (COA). The RAP is an ongoing collaborative effort implemented by federal, provincial, and local governments as well as industry and public partners. There are 3 key stages of the RAP: Stage 1 is a detailed description of the environmental problem; Stage 2 identifies remedial actions and options; Stage 3 is the final document providing evidence that the beneficial uses have been restored and the AOC can be “delisted”. The Detroit River, a 51 km-long connecting channel, is one of five binational AOCs. The Detroit River has a long history as a shipping channel and it has contributed greatly to the industrialization and development of Ontario and the north-eastern United States. As a result, however, it has been severely degraded due to frequent dredging, contamination directly into the water or indirectly by atmospheric deposition (i.e. mercury) and through the disposal of human and chemical wastes. For more information, visit detroitriver.ca and/or view a 2010 BUI status update at: https://www.ijc.org/en/detroit-river-status-beneficial-use-impairments

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    An Area of Concern (AOC) is a location where environmental quality is degraded compared to other areas in the Great Lake Basin resulting in the impairment of beneficial uses. A total of 43 AOCs were identified as a result of Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA).The Canada-United States GLWQA identifies 14 beneficial uses that must be restored in order to remove the designation as an Area of Concern. A beneficial use is defined as the ability of living organisms (including humans) to use the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem without adverse consequences. A Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) is a condition that interferes with the enjoyment of a water use. Each BUI has a set of locally-defined delisting criteria that are specific, measurable, achievable, and scientifically-defensible. The Remedial Action Plan (RAP) is administered locally in accordance with the Canada-U.S. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) and the Canada-Ontario Agreement (COA). The RAP is an ongoing collaborative effort implemented by federal, provincial, and local governments as well as industry and public partners. There are 3 key stages of the RAP: Stage 1 is a detailed description of the environmental problem; Stage 2 identifies remedial actions and options; Stage 3 is the final document providing evidence that the beneficial uses have been restored and the AOC can be “delisted”. The St. Clair River, a key shipping channel in the Great Lakes Seaway system, flows 64 kilometers from Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair. The St. Clair River is one of five binational AOCs under the Canada – United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1987). Approximately 170 000 people live in the AOC, particularly in the urban centers of Sarnia, Ontario and Port Huron, Michigan. The St. Clair River has greatly contributed to Ontario's and Michigan's industrial, commercial, and municipal development, and as a result it has been severely degraded due to the improper wastewater management, frequent dredging, and both point and non-point sources of contamination. For more information, visit: http://www.friendsofstclair.ca/www/rap/index.html